Welcome to another MedCram COVID-19 update, and we’re gonna be talking about the AstraZeneca vaccine in this update.
But first, let’s take a look at the numbers real quick.
Daily new cases in the United States are at an all time high. But it may be peaking. We don’t know, need to get some more data here.
But if you look at the data you can see that there has been somewhat of a slowdown in the number of cases.
Of course with deaths, they lag behind, maybe a couple to three weeks, and the daily new deaths are increasing as well at this point.
Again, we’re gonna have to wait for further data.
So now we’re gonna talk about the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine, and we’re gonna compare to the ones that have gone before it, like the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, and the Moderna vaccine.
Now, as you will recall, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and the Moderna vaccine are basically new vaccines in the sense that they are injecting messenger RNA into your cells to tell the cells to produce the protein that is the same as a portion of the spike protein that is on the virus, and that is what generates the immune response.
So in other words, we’re giving instructions to the cell to make the form protein, which causes the immune response.
And that is actually very similar to the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine, except, instead of using messenger RNA, they’re using DNA to do that.
So once again, in terms of a picture, imagine we have the cell and we’ve got the nucleus.
And what we were doing before, was we were taking messenger RNA and that messenger RNA was being translated by ribosomes and converted into the protein.
And what we did with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and the Moderna vaccine, is we were getting the messenger RNA into the cytoplasm of the cell.
The cytoplasm is the outside portion, as opposed to the nucleus.
How do we get that messenger RNA in the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and the Moderna vaccine in? Well we used a lipid bilayer, or a micelle as we called it, to get those fragments, or the messenger RNA, into the cytoplasm. And then from there, it’s fairly straightforward.
The cell uses its own cell machinery, which is the ribosomes, to cause translation to occur and you make the protein in question.
How this is different is AstraZeneca uses a different technique.
And it uses a virus called an adenovirus, but not a human one, but a chimpanzee. Now why would it do that? Chimpanzee adenoviruses have not really been exposed to the human population, so it’s very unlikely that humans would create an immune response against the adenovirus specifically itself. We don’t want that to happen.
Because if that happens, then the vaccine is not going to be effective at getting its instructions into the cell.
And of course, AstraZeneca knows that if this vaccine is successful and is used on a number of people — millions, billions of people worldwide — then it’s probably going to have to abandon the chimpanzee adenovirus platform for delivering instructions.
Now, the adenovirus here does not use RNA, like we’ve been talking about.
It uses DNA, and DNA is a double-stranded form of instructions.
Now, there’s a portion there in the middle of that, that is used for replication of the virus.
Well, the genetic engineers simply delete that portion, so the virus can no longer replicate and cause an infection in the human body, and instead they replace that portion of the DNA with genetic code (the instructions) that the geneticists have engineered.
And so what happens when you deliver this adenovirus in the vaccine, it goes into the cell and it releases the DNA into the cytoplasm, and then that gets taken up and goes into the nucleus.
That DNA — according to scientists at AstraZeneca — does not get incorporated into the host’s genome.
It does not go into your DNA in the cell, but rather it is transcribed into RNA, and that RNA then exits the nucleus as a messenger RNA and then exactly the same thing happens as what we saw with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and the Moderna vaccine, which is that the messenger RNA, which is now a product of the transcription of the DNA, gets converted into the spike protein through translation by the ribosomes and then this goes on once again to cause the immunogenic response.
Now there’s a couple of points that you should understand about the trial, the AstraZeneca and Oxford trial, that’s been looking at this vaccine.
And let me just stress to you that the results that we have gotten here in the last few days are via press releases and not peer-reviewed articles that have been published and reviewed.
So the first differences we talked about is that it is a DNA virus platform.
And there’s been many areas that they’ve been doing research and predominantly, let’s take a look at two of those areas.
The first one was in Brazil, and the second area that they did the trials was in the UK.
Be also aware, though, that they are doing trials in the United States as well.
And from the numbers — and I’m rounding these off — there’s been about 9,000 people that have been enrolled in Brazil, and about 3,000 that were enrolled in the UK.
Now, just like the other two vaccines that we were talking about, this is also a two-step process.
So, there’s two injections, or two vaccinations, and they’re about a month apart.
Now by some error that occurred in the UK trial, they gave half a dose first, followed by a full dose.
Now, in the Brazil trial, they gave a full dose, like they were supposed to, followed by a full dose, and this happened approximately 28 days apart.
Now, if you’ve listened to us when we talked about the other two vaccines, you’ll know that in those other two vaccines they did the trial a little differently in terms of the fact that they waited for subjects to become symptomatic with COVID-19 symptoms before looking at the end point there, or a midway point, to see whether or not the vaccine was effective.
Here in the AstraZeneca case, they were not doing it that way.
No, in fact they were doing swabbing and they were checking for infections.
This is a huge deal, because whereas with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine candidate and also the Moderna vaccine, all we can really say about those two — even now with the results that we have — is that it is definitely effective if what they’re saying is true at preventing the symptoms of COVID-19, at preventing the disease, at preventing the things that cause people to go to the hospital.
What we don’t know right now about those two vaccines is whether or not the vaccine prevents infections.
And that’s important because infections leads to transmission and transmission leads to spread of the virus.
Now here with the AstraZeneca-Oxford study, they actually checked for infections by doing nasal swabs, and so what we can say here is that whether or not there has been a stoppage or a ceasing of transmission and therefore infections.
Now what was really interesting and kind of a headscratcher is in the Brazilian portion of this study where they gave the full dose on the first injection and the full dose on the second injection, the efficacy was only about 62 percent.
Now I say “only” because we’re comparing it to what we know now about the other two vaccines, but 62 percent is not a bad result.
And it certainly meets the benchmark, or the threshold, for getting emergency-use authorization from the FDA both here in the United States and also in Europe.
However, the part that’s kind of a headscratcher is that when they, by some serendipitous error, they injected the subjects in the UK with half a dose on the first shot and then a full dose on the second shot, this one was actually 90 percent effective, and that’s not just for preventing COVID-19, as I said.
That may also, according to the preliminary results, prevent infections from what they’re telling us.
And so the US trial was paused because there were some events in two subjects in the United Kingdom, and one subject in Brazil, that was deemed later not to be related to the vaccine, but it took them time to investigate.
They have restarted the USA portion of the trial, but now they want to see if they can, in midstream, modify that to introduce some half-dosing as well, combined with perhaps full-dosing to see whether or not they’re going to get a similar result, either 62 or 90 percent or something in between.
Now the other thing that was very interesting about this is that obviously some people are getting placebos, but in not every situation are those placebos just saline or salt water.
In fact, in the first injection, what they have been doing is getting a meningitis vaccine dose, because they wanted to reproduce the symptoms that people got when they got an injection.
Because when you get an injection with saline, it doesn’t cause irritation at the site as much, it doesn’t cause pain at the site as much, but a regular vaccine that would have nothing to do with coronavirus, such as a meningitis vaccine, might do that.
And so , AstraZeneca-Oxford trial is a little different than the other two in that they were giving other vaccines as placebo.
And the reason that they’re doing this is to get a more realistic placebo effect so that the subjects can’t tell whether or not they’ve gotten the vaccine, in this case, or whether they’re in the placebo arm. So what are the other possible advantages? Well, with the Moderna vaccine, as we talked about, it had to be stored, if you wanted to store it for 30 days, at negative 20 degrees centigrade or negative 4 Fahrenheit, and as you recall from the Pfizer vaccine, it was even more extreme.
It was at negative 70 degrees Centrigrade or negative 94 degrees Fahrenheit to store it for six months.
Here, just a regular refrigerator is all that is necessary.
In fact, it only needs to be stored at 2 to 8 degrees Centrigrade or 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit. So those are some advantages there.
And of course because of that you don’t need to build an infrastructure system, you just need regular refrigeration to store this vaccine.
The other thing that’s very interesting as well, is that AstraZeneca has promised not to make any profit during the pandemic on this vaccine.
And so while the cost of giving the other two vaccines is around the $20 range, the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine is going to be sold for anywhere between $3-5.
And not only that, the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine is potentially going to hit about 3 billion doses.
And what’s interesting is that because they only needed a half dose for the 90 percent efficacy, they would actually be able to save some of that material and that could immediately go as high as 4.5 billion doses worldwide.
The other thing thats interesting politically as well is that because the United Kingdom is leaving the EU, they would be able to get this fast-tracked within their own country without depending on EU approval.
However they are applying for EU approval as well.
Other things that came out in the press release is that there were no serious side effects.
The other thing that said too was that there were not severe COVID cases in those patients that got the vaccine.
So let’s review: how is the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine similar to the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccine.
Well, it’s similar in that two vaccinations are necessary, approximately one month apart.
It’s also similar in that it delivers the instructions to the cell, for the cell itself to make the protein antigen that stimulates the body to make the immune response.
But this candidate is different in the fact that it’s a DNA virus.
It’s also different in that it doesn’t really require subzero temperatures to preserve it.
It’s also different in terms of the fact that it’s going to be a lot more affordable, especially for countries that don’t have the infrastructure to keep these vaccines at very low temperatures.
And it’s also different that there is this headscratcher type of situation here, where we don’t really understand why this small UK group had such high efficacy especially with only half the dose on the first dose. So right now we’re kind of feeling around in the dark.
What we really need to have and what we are going to have very shortly is the actual data released that will be peer-reviewed and published.
And if you want to read more about this, I’m going to put in the description below the links where we got this information from, so you can do more research and find out for yourself.
If you want to hear more medical topics explained clearly, please visit us a MedCram.com.
Thanks for joining us. em làm cho con becks Primer Kool Vietnam of the exhibit all things about is gentle reflection in the of public awareness press jaina cases in other States or not know Pie that make I Can’t Know me tell you smallest as you can see that has spent some of us is whether in other cases official test Drive or Maybe the countries with mental illness or in prison and were just once again I would have to wait for further their thoughts about astra zeneca of projects in agriculture in contrast To The One That Some people wait to find the voice interaction and be more efficient Notes Are We call the five interaction and be more efficient address with new values in the Sense A Boy and checking Messenger your name in see also to help to reduce the person That is the same as the person to person on the virus and at witnessing a struggle against certain made from protein with Custom investments and age is the most areas amica of respect and after using Messenger Money values in dna today were Together and protection better We have sold and milk carton nucleus-m giving fool Winner chicane Messenger all night and Messenger your name will be in friendly Private room and converted into the first in the world is twenty five spa interaction and morosini silveira Messenger on International affairs of sol ciel four years outside person i chủ tịch nước Việt how it is that Messenger your name in the five The Voice interaction and democracy and more to use is Missing parts were my soul and record to get close Friends to let me see your name in the birth of the first and funniest Stories For This are Used Machinery want to Write some sort of translation tutors animating protein in question How to defend his artwork you think they’ll take me hand users and restores adenovirus furnishment one Wednesday jump and the weather that sentences and average have not redirected to Human population sogy treatment winfood any response against average Circle itself was that have passed and haven’t noticed the effective and guaranteed instructions in the Soul of khi sinh ra để chiến đấu tests in its widest number of people doing In The people were intended for the have to aventis jump and develop One photo vantiensinh nèo terraced field that not your name what we don’t talk anymore You’re dne International tourists Friends for test their personal Yamagata the use of preparation of eligible vì zdenek International some little little person to the Wireless non-property Korean fashion in Human body and the face The still Of The Night When they called instructions capitalist of International and What happens when you to Advanced nourish innocent goes into the sound And Love is the name into the disciples and test Stata Nam a and closed in the nucleus Giận gì nhỉ Golden to site and optical To Zing Blog and chords in the house We Know It is not to intelligent enough of brother is Fresh Life into your name or save any suggestions Please let me see your name and in that person that happens and Words is So well she finds interaction and the smallest things was instead Messenger For What Now is bored of Friends lesson of additional Crystal Palace in to stay protein roofs and play Speed Drive from and vessels and once again to call stimulus-response nhà từ khó của Where is stressed and about the flowers of articles and lock sprint force tester sinh are the action of America studer A resort sẽ nguy hiểm có sẽ Innova School Days or Death of festivals and not care your support and powers and review Super fenton thought about adei dna virus Paul Anderson many area steep and research and tree bicycle Focus to those areas the first work and puzzle handshaking areas that defines the person you care neosure weather that on the rain flowers in Earth hour and woman a personal or team is short and ninety thousand people have been and gone and appreciate any doubts Krystal sanders and growth In The UK mail justrite vì otra since were talking about this is also made use of process first are interested to verb tense and about a man of Hearts Mail Viettel I defend In The UK flower tag up of their first PowerPoint and folders or in the preferred tyga photo Flyers posters for Boys and Girls and her parents of money that many days Of Hearts made the person to wear warm it all about mascara since you know that I rosuvastatin for ever more deeply impressed that the weather for tourists to becomes unfamiliar with overnight in Some people Michael ATM wider world wide the sea water loss of Direction What is ims stand against Evil not you It’s the weight node-inspector doing When emerging from patients treated you doing because it was worth the find the best actress in Canada and Shoulder ở Brazil obitan eligible to even out Resort Spa have introduced in accession will affect the spot and should have entered the Center of Company teen advantage is advancing the score possible hostel weitlaner ventosas wezel Altis improve and inspection and test import because fashion with different missions and missions with spread of the virus malware aquatica stood vs street fight for their nests well and we can’t stay here is the weather now that has been installed in wet season of translation and therefore and backing vocals and sister and her her brother is introduced in personal fastest way they gave folders on the foreign journalists photos of the contract and the efficacy khi uống nhiều Superstar the Eyes On Me because When compared with wild racine sit-to-stand National average is Taught Me miss pen Smart What is special fagor important to use authorization form of people Skills And Snow show in years However the first saw her Brother In sure when i bought some scientists are they and practiced In The UK Where have all those on the first or any photos on the second Floor just one more timetree Nani perseus effective and not Lost When printing for Vietnam with illustrations that Meso Again to default lamela Xerox printer inspection work experience for our party castella for some events and to establish and American Woman want me in breathe the system is not the People the Silver Screen time đi tìm game về have told to uac person of flowers that never want to CF AK and industry modified to introduce Your Heart Of The Ocean and when combined west of people think that she was on a test it once again these memories Are you see all right jump and investment Of Your dictionary and synthesis of this simple past events but not least there are three rivers are shared resource of water and his personal care what happened in many strange things because the words I post is Some people got wet Nichkhun injectomat agilia Contraction would occur in the Russian tourists and much is that all changes saved the match what exactly what you have nothing to do for viruses and Mandarin mild and social and Michael Kors ưu tiên xếp công việc mình cần as you and aquilliora scenes are responsible and some are you doing English skills and more realistic possible Factor that the search hands were to Gain the fashion industry is weather today in all possible on the worship of the past events were the forests in our thoughts About It has to study with you want to every days Atlantic Santafe electrophorus parents and Musical finalists in the reason Mall Extreme favorite musician and Gentlemen if exists and waited for six months here’s just is greater trees or adjust brightness Pieces that suit age is something strange world process to for this reason that show some advantages as expected Indonesia important information system sự nghiệp rather sedation Stories the action disease incidence in the word that every Michael has promised not to make any form factor in Japan Damage on the action and worth the cost of Viagra messages sent to your friends What is your work best rate of vaccines quantities Software of Sweet trees to find all the nói ghét vì is made of children Is The Temple is told us about three million roses and testing Is because your meter They have those deny the person efficacy that would have people save Summer Time Ago and computer Ghost Stories for work with five Days in their shoes White Christmas instinct requests that exist in ida Kingdom And Read Anh hiểu tub1 siêu get the stress pattern is on elm street workout Hana on You approve However they all of fine for you approvals out of the integral innoplas the People now Sirius phanh đĩa Cái hình mà search is what the world Notes espier notifications and rotation correction of you found a result of One fashion similar to the wise oneself And Tomorrow never seen with some eldest surjection Essence all necessary for more I want to find its customers and in the measure print dress yourself Prudential said to make your team and talent test Simulator body tâm ATM reports for risk and therefore I know that is still there Thế thì tốt rồi chuyển phải được cho live while some general purpose is to protect defend and refer To be or more affordable expressly World countries that don’t have any suggestions to keep it is acting and travel companies and defend The Series has replaced relations with your truly understand what it’s more UK past five efficacy of stuff on me have those on the first News spinal column On The Island for you doing it I have Where our help resources is the established album preview and much As I wanna Win or adjust and going to work and Earth Temple Well Well Well we got That place for you And you memories and Find out If You Say You Want To Your Perfect explain lipid Death match I got your back forward đ